The image featured in this article is of a magic square made entirely of primes. The magic constant is 3117, but in reality there is no magic to it. This is a mathematical construction bringing in several mathematical tools. First, the most basic and most interesting tool used that is prime numbers.
Prime numbers are a fascination in the world of math. They are unique in that they are the builders of all numbers, only divisible by one and themselves. As you can see, it is this uniqueness that makes them so enticing to study. Their unique qualities make them very useful in cryptography.
Then there is the magic squares themselves. Magic squares are an array of dimension n X n of n2 elements. The elements are arranged in such a way as to where every row, column, and diagonal add up to the same number.
Looking at the basic magic square and probably the most known, is the 15 square or often the 15 puzzle. It looks like this.
With a little addition, we can verify that all of the rows, columns, and diagonals add up to the same number 15. Generally, with the odd dimension squares the constant is equal to the product of the middle square and the dimension. In this case it is a 3X3 with a 5 in the center square. The product of 3 and 5 is how we get the constant 15. This is a simplistic look at these squares. There is more to this that we will discuss at another junction in our math journey.